mosca

The multi-transport MQTT broker for node.js. It supports AMQP, Redis, ZeroMQ, MongoDB or just MQTT.

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MOSCA

NPM

NPM

Mosca is a multi-transport MQTT broker supporting the following brokers/protocols.

  • Redis, a key/value store created by @antirez.
  • MongoDB, a scalable, high-performance, document-oriented database.
  • Mosquitto and all implementations of the MQTT protocol.
  • RabbitMQ and all implementations of the AMQP protocol.
  • ZeroMQ to use Mosca in a P2P fashion.

See the slides of my talk "MQTT and Node.js - Messaging in the Internet of Things".

You can find a test version of mosca at test.mosca.io. You can use ws://test.mosca.io/ to connect to the WebSocket tunnel. This is powered by the docker image.

Find out more about Mosca reading the dox generated documentation.

If you like Mosca, consider supporting the project by donating via Gittip, or hire me to get you started and solve any issue you might find. Also, check out our Usage in the Wild wiki page! Feel free to add yourself! :)

Mosca can be used:

Mosca officially support only node v0.10 but v0.11.x should work too. Node v0.8 is not supported.

Features

  • MQTT 3.1 compliant.
  • QoS 0 and QoS 1.
  • Various storage options for QoS 1 offline packets, and subscriptions.
  • As fast as it is possible.
  • Usable inside ANY other node.js app.

Using Mosca Standalone

Install

Install the library using npm.

$ npm install mosca bunyan -g

Install the library using git.

$ git clone git://github.com/mcollina/mosca.git
$ cd mosca
$ npm install

Usage

Mosca offers an executable for running it standalone. Run it and connect your preferred MQTT client.

$ mosca -v | bunyan

Configuration

Here you can see the options accepted by the command line tool:

$ mosca --help

  Usage: mosca [options] [command]

  Commands:

    adduser <user> <pass>  Add a user to the given credentials file
    rmuser <user>          Removes a user from the given credentials file
    start                  start the server (optional)

  Options:

    -h, --help                       output usage information
    -V, --version                    output the version number
    -p, --port <n>                   the port to listen to
    --parent-port <n>                the parent port to connect to
    --parent-host <s>                the parent host to connect to
    --parent-prefix <s>              the prefix to use in the parent broker
    --credentials <file>             the file containing the credentials
    --authorize-publish <pattern>    the pattern for publishing to topics for the added user
    --authorize-subscribe <pattern>  the pattern for subscribing to topics for the added user
    --key <file>                     the server's private key
    --cert <file>                    the certificate issued to the server
    --secure-port <n>                the TLS port to listen to
    --non-secure                     start both a secure and non-secure server
    --http-port <n>                  start an mqtt-over-websocket server on the specified port
    --https-port <n>                 start an mqtt-over-secure-websocket server on the specified port
    --http-static <directory>        serve some static files alongside the websocket client
    --https-static <directory>       serve some static files alongside the secure websocket client
    --http-bundle                    serve a MQTT.js-based client at /mqtt.js on HTTP
    --https-bundle                   serve a MQTT.js-based client at /mqtt.js on HTTPS
    --only-http                      start only an mqtt-over-websocket server
    --disable-stats                  disable the publishing of stats under /$SYS
    --broker-id <id>                 the id of the broker in the $SYS/<id> namespace
    -c, --config <c>                 the config file to use (override every other option)
    -d, --db <path>                  the path were to store the database
    -v, --verbose                    set the bunyan log to INFO
    --very-verbose                   set the bunyan log to DEBUG

To fully use mosca you need to define a configuration file where the communication broker is defined. Here follows an example using Redis.

A configuration file is structured in the following way:

var mosca = require('mosca');

module.exports = {
  port: 4883,
  id: 'mymosca', // used to publish in the $SYS/<id> topicspace
  stats: true, // publish stats in the $SYS/<id> topicspace
  logger: {
    level: 'info'
  },
  backend: {
    type: 'redis',
    port: 6379,
    host: 'localhost',
    return_buffers: true
  },
  persistence: {
    factory: mosca.persistence.Redis,
    port: 6379,
    host: 'localhost'
  },
  secure: {
    keyPath: "/path/to/key",
    certPath: "/path/to/cert"
  }
};

Ad Mosca is based on Ascoltatori, here you can find configuration examples covering Redis, MongoDB, AMQP, ZeroMQ and and MQTT brokers (e.g Mosquitto).

Authorization

Mosca supports user authentication through the use of a specific json file. In order to create one run the following command.

// add a user
$ mosca adduser <user> <pass> --credentials ./credentials.json

// add a user specifying the authorized topics
$ mosca adduser myuser mypass --credentials ./credentials.json \
  --authorize-publish 'hello/*' --authorize-subscribe 'hello/*'

// remove a user
$ mosca rmuser myuser --credentials ./credentials.json

// start Mosca with a specific set of credentials:
$ mosca --credentials ./credentials.json

The patterns are checked and validated using Minimatch. The credentials file can be automatically reladed by Mosca if it receives a SIGHUP.

Persistence

The MQTT specification requires a persistent storage for offline QoS 1 subscription that has been done by an unclean client. Mosca offers several persitance options.

All of them can be configured from the configuration file, under the persistence key. The only exception is LevelUp, which can be specified by using the --db option from the command line.

MQTT over Websocket

Since v0.13.0 Mosca support MQTT over Websocket through the mows package.

It is very easy to use, just prepare an index.html file:

<html>
  <head>
    <script src="/mqtt.js"></script>
  </head>
  <body>
    <script>
      var client = mqtt.createClient();

      client.subscribe("mqtt/demo");

      client.on("message", function(topic, payload) {
        alert([topic, payload].join(": "));
        client.end();
      });

      client.publish("mqtt/demo", "hello world!");
    </script>
  </body>
</html>

Then serve it with Mosca:

$ mosca --http-port 3000 --http-static . --http-bundle \
        --very-verbose | bunyan

And point your browser to http://localhost:3000.

Embedding Mosca

Mosca can be used into any Node.js app. Here an example that uses MongoDB as broker.

var mosca = require('mosca')

var ascoltatore = {
  type: 'mongo',
  url: 'mongodb://localhost:27017/mqtt',
  pubsubCollection: 'ascoltatori',
  mongo: {}
};

var settings = {
  port: 1883,
  backend: ascoltatore
};

var server = new mosca.Server(settings);
server.on('ready', setup);

// fired when the mqtt server is ready
function setup() {
  console.log('Mosca server is up and running')
}

// fired when a message is published
server.on('published', function(packet, client) {
  console.log('Published', packet.payload);
});

mosca.Server#publish()

The publish() function allows to programatically publish a value to MQTT clients with full support of all distinctive MQTT features: offline, quality of server, and retained messages.

var message = {
  topic: '/hello/world',
  payload: 'abcde', // or a Buffer
  qos: 0, // 0, 1, or 2
  retain: false // or true
};

server.publish(message, function() {
  console.log('done!');
});

How Mosca works

Mosca is based on Ascoltatori, a simple publish/subscribe library supporting different brokers/protocols such as Redis, MongoDB, RabbitMQ, Mosquitto, and ZeroMQ. This means that you can use any of the listed solutions to let your MQTT client communicate with any service. Note that Mosca and Ascoltatore must share the same underlying broker.

MQTT Client Publish Flow

This is a Node.js MQTT client publishing on a topic.

var mqtt = require('mqtt')
  , host = 'localhost'
  , port = '1883';

var settings = {
  keepalive: 1000,
  protocolId: 'MQIsdp',
  protocolVersion: 3,
  clientId: 'client-1'
}

// client connection
var client = mqtt.createClient(port, host, settings);

// client publishing a sample JSON
client.publish('hello/you', '{ "hello": "you" }');

This message will be received from Mosca and any Ascoltatore who has subscribed to this topic will automatically receive the message.

var ascoltatori = require('ascoltatori');
var settings = {
  type: 'mongo',
  uri: 'mongodb://localhost:27017/',
  db: 'mqtt',
  pubsubCollection: 'ascoltatori',
  mongo: {}
};

ascoltatori.build(settings, function (ascoltatore) {
  ascoltatore.subscribe('hello/*', function() {
    console.log('Received message', arguments);
  });
});

MQTT Client Subscribe Flow

With the same logics, a client subscribing to Mosca for a specific topic will get notified everytime an element will be published in Ascoltatori. This is a Node.js MQTT client subscribing a topic.

var mqtt = require('mqtt')
  , host = 'localhost'
  , port = '1883';

var settings = {
  keepalive: 1000,
  protocolId: 'MQIsdp',
  protocolVersion: 3,
  clientId: 'client-1'
}

// client connection
var client = mqtt.createClient(port, host, settings);

// client subscription
client.subscribe('hello/me')
client.on('message', function(topic, message) {
  console.log('received', topic, message);
});

When an Ascoltatore publishes a message to the topic, Mosca forwards it to the client who subscribed it.

var ascoltatori = require('ascoltatori');
var settings = {
  type: 'mongo',
  uri: 'mongodb://localhost:27017/',
  db: 'mqtt',
  pubsubCollection: 'ascoltatori',
  mongo: {}
};

ascoltatori.build(settings, function (_ascoltatore) {
  ascoltatore.publish('hello/me', '{ "hello": "you" }');
});

Authorizations

With Mosca you can authorize a client defining three methods.

  • #authenticate
  • #authorizePublish
  • #authorizeSubscribe

Those methods can be used to restric the accessible topics for a specific clients. Follows an example where a client send a username and a password during the connection phase and where the username will be saved and used later on to verify if a specific client can publish or subscribe for the specific user.

// Accepts the connection if the username and password are valid
var authenticate = function(client, username, password, callback) {
  var authorized = (username === 'alice' && password === 'secret');
  if authorized client.user = username;
  callback(null, authorized);
}

// In this case the client authorized as alice can publish to /users/alice taking
// the username from the topic and verifing it is the same of the authorized user
var authorizePublish = function(client, topic, payload, callback) {
  callback(null, client.user == topic.split('/')[1]);
}

// In this case the client authorized as alice can subscribe to /users/alice taking
// the username from the topic and verifing it is the same of the authorized user
var authorizeSubscribe = function(client, topic, callback) {
  callback(null, client.user == topic.split('/')[1]);
}

With this logic someone that is authorized as alice will not be able to publish to the topic users/bob. Now that we have the authorizing methods we can configure mosca.

var server = new mosca.Server(settings);
server.on('ready', setup);

function setup() {
  server.authenticate = authenticate;
  server.authorizePublish = authorizePublish;
  server.authorizeSubscribe = authorizeSubscribe;
}

Executing a callback for every published message

Mosca supports two ways to execute a function after the publish of every message: the 'published' event or the mosca.Server#published function. The first is a standard node-style event, while the second is a single callback, to use where respecting the QoS of a callback is important.

Persistence

The persistence is automatically configured when using the mosca.Server constructor, but it needs to be explicitly wired up. Here is the list of all supported database:

If you would like to see one more database, feel free to submit a pull-request.

The wiring is easy:


var mosca = require("mosca");
var server = new mosca.Server();
var db = new mosca.persistence.LevelUp({ path: "/path/to/the/db" });
db.wire(server);

Encryption Support

Mosca supports encrypted communication via node's TLS implementation: http://nodejs.org/api/tls.html#tls_tls_ssl.

var mosca = require('mosca')

var SECURE_KEY = __dirname + '/../../test/secure/tls-key.pem';
var SECURE_CERT = __dirname + '/../../test/secure/tls-cert.pem';

var settings = {
  port: 8443,
  logger: {
    name: "secureExample",
    level: 40,
  },
  secure : { 
    keyPath: SECURE_KEY,
    certPath: SECURE_CERT,
  }
};
var server = new mosca.Server(settings);
server.on('ready', setup);

// fired when the mqtt server is ready
function setup() {
  console.log('Mosca server is up and running')
}

Websocket

It is possible to augment any node application with MQTT-over-websocket capabilities, just call the Server#attachHttpServer method, like so:

var http     = require('http)
  , httpServ = http.createServer()
  , mosca    = require('mosca')
  , mqttServ = new mosca.Server();

mqttServ.attachHttpServer(httpServ);

httpServer.listen(3000);

It is also possible to server the browserified bundle for the mqtt client:

var http     = require('http')
  , express  = require('express')
  , app      = express();
  , httpServ = http.createServer(app)
  , mosca    = require('mosca')
  , mqttServ = new mosca.Server();

mqttServ.attachHttpServer(httpServ);
mqttServ.serveBundle(app);

httpServer.listen(3000);

Docker Support

In order to use the prebuilt Docker container published on the Docker Index, just run:

$ docker run -p 1883:1883 -p 80:80 -v /var/db/mosca:/db matteocollina/mosca
`

The command line above will persist your data in the /var/db/mosca directory of the host. You should create that folder.

Upstart

You can put the following upstart script in /etc/init/mosca.conf to automatically start mosca at boot:

description "Mosca container"
author "Matteo Collina"
start on filesystem and started docker
stop on runlevel [!2345]
respawn
script
  # Wait for docker to finish starting up first.
  FILE=/var/run/docker.sock
  while [ ! -e $FILE ] ; do
    inotifywait -t 2 -e create $(dirname $FILE)
  done
  /usr/bin/docker run -d -p 80:80 -p 1883:1883 -v /var/db/mosca/:/db matteocollina/mosca
end script

Build

If you want to build your Mosca container, just clone this repository and run $ docker build .. This will create a container that run Mosca with a levelup-based database.

In order to build the container, you should:

$ git clone https://github.com/mcollina/mosca.git
$ cd mosca
$ docker build -t mosca:dev .

In order to run the Mosca container you should:

$ docker run -p 1883:1883 -p 80:80 -v /var/db/mosca:/db mosca:dev

The command line above will persist your data in the /var/db/mosca directory of the host.

Feedback

Use the issue tracker for bugs. Tweet us for any idea that can improve the project.

Authors

Matteo Collina

Contributors

David Hallsa href="https://github.com/davedoesdev"GitHub/davedoesdev
Andrea Reginatoa href="https://github.com/andreareginato"GitHub/andreareginato
Chris Wigginsa href="https://github.com/chriswiggins"GitHub/chriswiggins
Samir Naika href="https://github.com/samirnaik"GitHub/samirnaik
Leo Steinera href="https://github.com/ldstein"GitHub/ldstein

Sam Beck

LICENSE - "MIT License"

Copyright (c) 2013-2014 Matteo Collina, http://matteocollina.com

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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