squel

SQL query string builder

npm install squel
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squel - SQL query string builder

Build Status NPM module NPM

A flexible and powerful SQL query string builder for Javascript.

Features

  • Works in node.js and in the browser.
  • Supports the standard SQL queries: SELECT, UPDATE, INSERT and DELETE.
  • Supports non-standard commands for popular DB engines such as Postgres.
  • Can be customized to build any query or command of your choosing.
  • Uses method chaining for ease of use.
  • Well tested (~290 tests).
  • Small: <4 KB minified and gzipped

Installation

node.js

Install using npm:

$ npm install squel

Browser

Use bower if you like:

$ bower install squel

Or add the following inside your HTML:

<script type="text/javascript" src="https://rawgithub.com/hiddentao/squel/master/squel-basic.min.js"></script>

WARNING: Do not ever pass queries generated on the client side to your web server for execution. Such a configuration would make it trivial for a casual attacker to execute arbitrary queries—as with an SQL-injection vector, but much easier to exploit and practically impossible to protect against.

Available files

  • squel.js - unminified version of Squel with the standard commands and all available non-standard commands added
  • squel.min.js - minified version of squel.js
  • squel-basic.js - unminified version of Squel with only the standard SQL commands
  • squel-basic.min.js - minified version of squel-basic.js

Examples

Before running the examples ensure you have squel installed and enabled at the top of your script:

var squel = require("squel");

SELECT

// SELECT * FROM table
squel.select()
    .from("table")
    .toString()

// SELECT t1.id, t1.name as "My name", t1.started as "Date" FROM table `t1` ORDER BY id ASC LIMIT 20
squel.select()
    .from("table", "t1")
    .field("t1.id")
    .field("t1.name", "My name")
    .field("t1.started", "Date")
    .order("id")
    .limit(20)
    .toString()

// SELECT t1.id, t2.name FROM table `t1` LEFT JOIN table2 `t2` ON (t1.id = t2.id) WHERE (t2.name <> 'Mark') AND (t2.name <> 'John') GROUP BY t1.id
squel.select()
    .from("table", "t1")
    .field("t1.id")
    .field("t2.name")
    .left_join("table2", "t2", "t1.id = t2.id")
    .group("t1.id")
    .where("t2.name <> 'Mark'")
    .where("t2.name <> 'John'")
    .toString()

You can use nested queries too:

// SELECT s.id FROM (SELECT * FROM students) `s` INNER JOIN (SELECT id FROM marks) `m` ON (m.id = s.id)
squel.select()
    .from( squel.select().from('students'), 's' )
    .field('id')
    .join( squel.select().from('marks').field('id'), 'm', 'm.id = s.id' )
    .toString()

UPDATE

// UPDATE test SET f1 = 1
squel.update()
    .table("test")
    .set("f1", 1)
    .toString()

// UPDATE test, test2, test3 AS `a` SET test.id = 1, test2.val = 1.2, a.name = "Ram", a.email = NULL, a.count = a.count + 1
squel.update()
    .table("test")
    .set("test.id", 1)
    .table("test2")
    .set("test2.val", 1.2)
    .table("test3","a")
    .set("a.name", "Ram")
    .set("a.email", null)
    .set("a.count = a.count + 1")
    .toString()

INSERT

// INSERT INTO test (f1) VALUES (1)
squel.insert()
    .into("test")
    .set("f1", 1)
    .toString()

// INSERT INTO test (f1, f2, f3, f4, f5) VALUES (1, 1.2, TRUE, "blah", NULL)
squel.insert()
    .into("test")
    .set("f1", 1)
    .set("f2", 1.2)
    .set("f3", true)
    .set("f4", "blah")
    .set("f5", null)
    .toString()

DELETE

// DELETE FROM test
squel.delete()
    .from("test")
    .toString()

// DELETE FROM table1 WHERE (table1.id = 2) ORDER BY id DESC LIMIT 2
squel.delete()
    .from("table1")
    .where("table1.id = ?", 2)
    .order("id", false)
    .limit(2)

Paramterized queries

Use the useParam() method to obtain a parameterized query with a separate list of formatted parameter values:

// { text: "INSERT INTO test (f1, f2, f3, f4, f5) VALUES (?, ?, ?, ?, ?)", values: [1, 1.2, "TRUE", "blah", "NULL"] }
squel.insert()
    .into("test")
    .set("f1", 1)
    .set("f2", 1.2)
    .set("f3", true)
    .set("f4", "blah")
    .set("f5", null)
    .toParam()

Expression builder

There is also an expression builder which allows you to build complex expressions for WHERE and ON clauses:

// test = 3 OR test = 4
squel.expr()
    .or("test = 3")
    .or("test = 4")
    .toString()

// test = 3 AND (inner = 1 OR inner = 2) OR (inner = 3 AND inner = 4 OR (inner = 5))
squel.expr()
    .and("test = 3")
    .and_begin()
        .or("inner = 1")
        .or("inner = 2")
    .end()
    .or_begin()
        .and("inner = 3")
        .and("inner = 4")
        .or_begin()
            .and("inner = 5")
        .end()
    .end()
    .toString()

// SELECT * FROM test INNER JOIN test2 ON (test.id = test2.id) WHERE (test = 3 OR test = 4)
squel.select()
    .join( "test2", null, squel.expr().and("test.id = test2.id") )
    .where( squel.expr().or("test = 3").or("test = 4") )

Custom value types

By default Squel does not support the use of object instances as field values. Instead it lets you tell it how you want specific object types to be handled:

// handler for objects of type Date
squel.registerValueHandler(Date, function(date) {
  return date.getFullYear() + '/' + date.getMonth() + '/' + date.getDate();
});

squel.update().
  .table('students')
  .set('start_date', new Date(2013, 5, 1))
  .toString()

// UPDATE students SET start_date = '2013/5/1'

Note that custom value handlers can be overridden on a per-instance basis (see the docs)

Custom queries

Squel allows you to override the built-in query builders with your own as well as create your own types of queries:

// ------------------------------------------------------
// Setup the PRAGMA query builder
// ------------------------------------------------------
var util = require('util');   // to use util.inherits() from node.js

var CommandBlock = function() {};
util.inherits(CommandBlock, squel.cls.Block);

// private method - will not get exposed within the query builder
CommandBlock.prototype._command = function(_command) {
  this._command = _command;
}

// public method - will get exposed within the query builder
CommandBlock.prototype.compress = function() {
  this._command('compress');
};

CommandBlock.prototype.buildStr = function() {
  return this._command.toUpperCase();
};


// generic parameter block
var ParamBlock = function() {};
util.inherits(ParamBlock, squel.cls.Block);

ParamBlock.prototype.param = function(p) {
  this._p = p;
};

ParamBlock.prototype.buildStr = function() {
  return this._p;
};


// pragma query builder
var PragmaQuery = function(options) {
  squel.cls.QueryBuilder.call(this, options, [
      new squel.cls.StringBlock(options, 'PRAGMA'),
      new CommandBlock(),
      new ParamBlock()
  ]);
};
util.inherits(PragmaQuery, squel.cls.QueryBuilder);


// convenience method (we can override built-in squel methods this way too)
squel.pragma = function(options) {
  return new PragmaQuery(options)
};


// ------------------------------------------------------
// Build a PRAGMA query
// ------------------------------------------------------

squel.pragma()
  .compress()
  .param('test')
  .toString();

// 'PRAGMA COMPRESS test'

Non-standard SQL

Squel supports the standard SQL commands and reserved words. However a number of database engines provide their own non-standard commands. To make things easy Squel allows for different 'flavours' of SQL to be loaded and used.

At the moment Squel provides a Postgres flavour which augments query builders with additional commands (e.g. INSERT ... RETURNING) for use with the Postgres database engine.

To use this in node.js:

var squel = require('squel').useFlavour('postgres');

For the browser:

<script type="text/javascript" src="https://rawgithub.com/hiddentao/squel/master/squel.min.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript">
  squel.useFlavour('postgres');
</script>

(Internally the flavour setup method simply utilizes the custom query mechanism to effect changes).

Read the the API docs to find out available commands. Flavours of SQL which get added to Squel in the future will be usable in the above manner.

Building it

We use Grunt to do the build and docco to build annotated source code docs.

$ npm install -g grunt-cli
$ npm install -g docco
$ npm install
$ grunt <-- this will build the code and run the tests

Annotated source code can be found in the docs/ folder.

Tests are written in Mocha and can be found in the test/ folder. To run them:

$ grunt test

Documentation

Full documentation (guide and API) is available at http://squeljs.org/.

Contributing

If you wish to submit a pull request please update and/or create new tests for any changes you make and ensure all the tests pass.

Ports to other languages


Homepage: http://squeljs.org

Source: https://github.com/hiddentao/squel

Copyright (c) Ramesh Nair

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY, FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM, OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE SOFTWARE.

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